Water fountain designers were multi-talented people from the 16th to the later part of the 18th century, often working as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci, a Renaissance artist, was renowned as an inspired master, inventor and scientific expert. He systematically documented his findings in his now famed notebooks about his investigations into the forces of nature and the investigate this site qualities and movement of water. Innovative water displays packed with symbolic meaning and all-natural wonder converted private villa settings when early Italian fountain creators combined creativity with hydraulic and landscaping expertise. The humanist Pirro Ligorio, renowned for his virtuosity in archeology, architecture and garden design, delivered the vision behind the splendors in Tivoli. Other water feature developers, masterminding the fantastic water marbles, water features and water jokes for the countless estates near Florence, were tried and tested in humanistic themes and traditional scientific readings.